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Chronology of Georgian history

Georgia is one of the ancient countries in the world. It is situated in the South Caucasus and is located at the meeting point of Europe and Asia. Georgia is bordered from the north by Russian Federation, from east by Azerbaijan and from south by Turkey and Armenia. Its western boundary is formed by the Black Sea. Georgia is the country of great beauty and old traditions.

Georgia is an old country with ancient culture, rich in both art and history, dating back to the earliest stage of human history. The first sign of human habitation at  Dmanisi  is 1 million 800 thousand years old. On May 12 in 2000 many world news agencies and the most popular publications (“New York Times”, “Washington Post”,  “National Geographic”, ”Le Monde”) spread the following information: “A relic of the first human migration has been found in Georgia”. The focus of attention was directed to Georgia, because of this event. Archaeological excavations  have discovered a rich and diverse culture of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze eras and more recent periods of antiquity.

The foundation of the ancient Georgian state was laid long before the birth of Christ. Old Georgians: Colchis and Iberians formed first Georgian states 3500 years ago. The incursions by Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Turks  and Persians often led to the destruction of Georgia but the country often rose from its ashes and ruins .The heroic struggle of the people enabled them to preserve their statehood , language and culture through centuries. On the other hand the culture of this people is closely linked with native traditions.

From the earliest times Caucasus has been a region of high romance. Georgia is the country of the legends and Greek myths about the fabulous golden fleece sought by Argonauts in Colchis, about Prometheus-Amirani chained to the rock on the Mount Caucasus, and about the tragedy of Medea, who through far away from Colchis, never forgot her homeland.

Georgia is a Christian orthodox country. A Georgian orthodox church is one among 15 orthodox autocephaly churches in the world. The robe of Christ is buried here, which is knitted by the Virgin. In the first century  two Apostles of Christ preached Christian religion in Georgia and one of them is buried here. Christian culture developed after the adoption of Christianity, it was a woman, ST. Nino from Cabadokia, who brought Christianity to Georgia in about 330 A.D. Christianity was associated with the national self-consciousness, particularly after the fall of the Byzantine Empire when Georgia remained alone surrounded by  hostile Muslim states. In some mountain provinces (Pshavi, Tusheti) Christianity connects  with old, pagan religious rituals. Thousands of churches, cathedrals and monasteries were built in the Middle Ages. Georgians built a lot of monasteries abroad, the most important one is Atoni Iverta Monastery (980-983) or Iverioni as Greeks called it (literal “Iverta”). Atoni Mountain also is called Mtatsminda (Saint Mountain). Architectural monuments created in the Renaissance of Georgian architecture in the sixth-seventh centuries and tenth-twelfth centuries are part of the world's treasure. Since Georgia always was and is populated with people of the different nations, religions and traditions, there were also built catholic churches, Jewish synagogues and Muslim mosques.

History Timeline

BC
1.800 000 A relic of the first human migration found at Dmanisi, Georgia
5000 Georgian Neolithic kingdom 
1200-1100 Foundation of Georgian kingdoms Diaokhi and Kolkha (Kolchida)                                                                                                
400 Formation of Iberian kingdom
299- 234 The reign of the first king of Georgia Parnavaz. Creation of the Georgian script
65 Pompeus   defeats the king of Georgia Artag. According to the treaty with Rome Georgia becomes a friend of Rome. The king  Artag  sends  to Roman Emperor Golden throne, table, chairs

AD
I Two Apostles of Christ, Simon Canaanite and Andrew preach Christian religion in Georgia. It is believed that the tomb of the latter is located in west Georgia, by the Black Sea in the ancient side of Nikopsia
I – II Strengthening of Iberian kingdom
II The emperor of Rome Anthony Pius invites Georgian king Parsman II with his family in Rome. He, in the honor of Georgian king, sets up his statue in one of the greatest Church of Rome  
337 Christianity is declared as the state religion of Georgia by king Mirian
V The reign of Vakhtang Gorgasali. He founds Tbilisi and according to his will the capital of Georgia is moved here from Mtskheta
523 Invaders from Iran capture Kartli (Iberia). The king of Kartli runs to Rome and is protected by the Roman emperor
VI Spreading of Zoroastrian religion in Georgia, by force of Iranians
VI-VII Syrian fathers arrive in Georgia and a lot of magnificent monasteries are built in this period
780-1801 Bagrationi, the Georgian Royal family rules Georgia 
975-1014 The king Bagrat III unifies Georgia
XI Svetitskhoveli, Alaverdi and Bagrati, the three greatest churches of Georgia are rebuilt in this century
1027-1072 The reign of Bagrat IV, Seljuk –Turks first invasion in Georgia. The daughter of Bagrat IV Marta (Maria ) becomes the  wife of the Roman emperor
1089-1125 The reign of David IV the builder, named for his creative political activity. Overcoming the separation of his nobles, he completes the consolidation of the country. Under the leadership of David the Builder a regular army is  set up and he drives out the Turks from Georgia and most part of Tran Caucasus. He pays  attention to culture and education and founds  the monastery and academy of Gelati. He is buried in Gelati
1121 The Battle at Didgori, so called dzlevai sakvirveli  ”wonderful victory”: The numerous and combined army of Seljuk- Turks and Persians are defeated by the  Georgian forces,  including 100 crusaders
1122 David the builder recaptures Tbilisi, conquered and ruled by Arabs for 400 years until this event. He makes Tbilisi the capital of newly united Georgia
1184-1213 The reign of Queen Tamar. She is a first woman who comes up to the throne of feudal Georgia. Her rule is the summit of development of feudal Georgia, her armies are remarkably successful,  winning major victories against Muslim forces at the battles of Shamkori (1195) and Basiani (1202) , then a mighty state stretches  from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea, from the North Caucasus to Persian Azerbaijan and Erzerum. 1204 Tamar creates the depended Trabzon Empire and gives the throne to her relative Alexi Komnen. The greatest work of the art of Tamar’s reign, the epic poem “ the knight in the tiger’s skin” by Shota Rustaveli , is written in this century
1314-1346 The reign of George V the Brilliant. Revival of Georgia
1386-1403 Tamer lane invades country eight times
XVI Shah Abbas invades Georgia several times, he exiles 200 000 Georgians in Fereidan province of Iran. After 400 years these Georgians have  preserved  their language and culture in Iran and never forgot their homeland.
XVIII Vakhtang VI Economic and cultural revival of east Georgia. Vakhtang VI is the creator of the new written public and private law in Georgia
1898-1801 George XII, last king of Georgia
1801 Georgian kingdom is annexed by Russian empire
1918-1921 Georgia is independent and democratic state
1821 Annexing of Georgia by the Soviet army. Georgia becomes the part of the Soviet Union
1989 April Rebellion against the Soviet Rule
1991 9 April Declaration of Independence
1992-1993 War in Abkhazia
1992 Georgia becomes the member of the United Nations
1999 Georgia becomes the member of the Council of Europe.
2003 Roses’ Revolution

 


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